The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

Correlation between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition scores and brain structure in healthy subjects: a whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging study

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Version (WAIS-III) is widely used to assess intelligence quotient (IQ). We aimed to investigate the relationship between WAIS-III scores and whole brain structures using magnetic resonance imaging.

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Methods: Participants were 266 healthy, right-handed individuals (age: 45.6 ± 12.9 years, 98 men and 168 women). IQ was assessed using the WAIS-III and the Japanese Adult Reading Test (JART). Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging were performed to analyze the association of WAIS-III scores and JART scores with gray matter volume and white matter integrity, respectively.

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Results: Verbal IQ correlated significantly and positively with the volume of left gyrus rectus and anterior cingulate gyrus, left posterior insula and planum polar, and left superior and middle frontal gyrus (p < 0.05, corrected). The verbal comprehension group index was significantly and positively related to the volumes of the left superior and middle frontal gyrus, the left gyrus of the right and anterior cingulate gyrus, and the left middle frontal gyrus, while the processing speed group index was significantly and positively related to the volumes. Of the two, significantly and positively correlated with different regional white matter. Fractional anisotropy value (p < 0.05, corrected). In contrast, JART scores showed no correlation with brain structure.

Conclusions: These results suggest a neurostructural basis of WAIS-III IQ and group indices in the brain of healthy individuals.

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Intelligence Test For Adults

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was developed by David Wechsler as a standardized battery for assessing intelligence quotient (IQ) (Frank, 1983). After the WAIS Revised Version (R) was developed (Wechsler, 1981) and validated (Feingold, 1983), the WAIS-3

Version (III) was later developed (Wechsler, 1997) and proved to be a well-established IR battery (Ardila, 1999; Axelrod and Ryan, 2000; Ryan and Schnakenberg-Ott, 2003; Bowden et al., 2007).

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Previous studies have examined the relationship between WAIS scores and brain structure as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in healthy individuals. WAIS-R IQ scores correlated with gray matter volume in 67 participants (Andreasen et al., 1993). WAIS-R full-scale IQ (FSIQ) was associated with gray and white matter volume in 65-year-old adults (Narr et al., 2007), while WAIS-R performance IQs (PIQ) were associated with medial prefrontal cortex volume. There was a VBM study with 55 participants (Gong et al., 2005). A region of interest (ROI) study showed that WAIS-R IQ correlated with cortical thickness ( Choi et al., 2008 ), while a whole-brain study showed that WAIS-R FSIQ correlated with cortical measures ( Yang et al., 2013 ). ), in 225 and 78 healthy young adults, respectively. These studies support the hypothesized correlation between WAIS-based scores and brain structure.

Test Review: Wechsler, D. Manual For The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1981

In healthy individuals, IQ and group indices for the WAIS-III were positively correlated with orbital frontal cortices and orbital gyrus volumes in ROIs in a study of 25 participants ( Nestor et al., 2015 ). FSIQ was positively correlated with FA values ​​of the dominant posterior medial orbitofrontal-rostral anterior cingulate cortices in an ROI-based DTI study involving 26 male participants ( Ohtani et al., 2017 ). Positive correlation between parieto-frontal gyrification and WAIS-III or 4

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

(IV) A published working memory group index was found using FreeSurfer software in 48 participants (Green et al., 2018). WAIS-III subtests showed a positive correlation with cortical thinning in 82 middle-aged adults analyzed using FreeSurfer software (Ferreira et al., 2016).

The JART is the Japanese version of the National Reading Test for Adults, which is a proxy for premorbid IQ (Schretlen et al., 2005; Hidese et al., 2019a). To our knowledge, no MRI studies have been performed to assess the relationship between JART scores and brain structures. This warrants an MRI study investigating the relationship between JART-predicted IQ and brain structures.

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Wais Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Test Kit Case

Although the WAIS-III is widely used as an instrument to assess IQ, its neurostructural basis (ie, the relationship between intelligence performance and brain structure) has never been investigated using whole-brain analysis in adults, although research is available. in children or adolescents (Wilke et al., 2003; Ramsden et al., 2011). Additionally, only adult studies have used ROI analyzes (Nestor et al., 2015; Ferreira et al., 2016; Ohtani et al., 2017; Green et al., 2018), and only two ROI studies examined correlations. ‘Rangan WAIS-III IQ and group index (Nestor et al., 2015; Green et al., 2018). We aimed to investigate the relationship of all WAIS-III scores (including subtests) and JART scores with whole brain structure using VBM and DTI to analyze gray and white matter regions in a relatively large sample of healthy individuals.

Participants were 266 healthy volunteers of Japanese ethnicity (mean age: 45.6 ± 12.9 years, range: 18 to 75 years; 98 men and 168 women). All participants considered themselves right-handed. They received detailed announcements in the local community of Kodaira, in a free local newspaper distributed in western Tokyo, and on our laboratory website. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants after the study was explained. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Center for Neurology and Psychiatry and was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (World Medical Association, 2013).

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Participants were screened for any psychiatric disorders by trained psychiatrists using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (Sheehan et al., 1998; Otsubo et al., 2005) and the Japanese version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5.

Single Item Memory, Associative Memory, And The Human Hippocampus

Publication criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Individuals with any mental illness were excluded from the study. IQ was assessed by trained psychologists using the Japanese version of the WAIS-III ( Wechsler, 2006 ) and the face-to-face version of the 100-kanji JART ( Matsuoka et al., 2006 ).

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

High spatial resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted and DTI images were obtained using a 3.0 Tesla MR system (Trio, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The details of MRI parameters were as follows: same as our previous report (Ota et al., 2017) for T1-weighted images; Echo time/repetition time = 85/6, 200 ms, field of view = 240 × 240, matrix = 96 × 96, voxel size = 2.5 × 2.5 × 2.5 mm

For DTI images. Individuals with abnormal findings such as arachnoid cyst were excluded from the study. Preprocessing of T1-weighted images was performed by the Computational Anatomy Toolbox for SPM version 12.

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale |

. Gray matter images were smoothed with an 8 mm full-width at half-maximum Gaussian kernel. DTI data were pre-processed in FSL version 5.0 using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics ( Smith et al., 2006 ).

. The FA threshold was set to 0.20 to exclude peripheral pathways. Skeletonized FA data were analyzed using the FSL “threshold-free cluster enhancement” option at “randomness” with 10,000 permutations ( Nichols and Holmes, 2002 ; Smith and Nichols, 2009 ).

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Pearson’s and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were used to calculate the respective correlations of continuous (age, BMI, and education level) and categorical (gender) variables with WAIS-III IQ and group indices and JART scores. Pearson’s partial correlation coefficient was used to calculate the correlation matrix between IQ and group indices and the JART score adjusted for age, sex, and BMI. Bonferroni corrections were applied for multiple testing in correlation analyzes (p < 0.05/8 [sum of WAIS IQ and group index and JART score] ≒ 0.0063). Statistics were calculated using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 25.0 (SPSS Japan, Tokyo, Japan). Statistical tests were two-sided, and p < 0.05 was considered significant.

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Correlations of WAIS-III scores (including 14 subtests) and JART scores with regional gray matter volume in VBM and white matter FA values ​​in DTI with age, gender, BMI, education level, and intracranial volume (only in VBM, calculated using the Easy_volume tool

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

). The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 (FWE-corrected) in VBM and p < 0.05 (FWE-corrected) in DTI. In VBM, cluster sizes below size 10 were considered insignificant.

Participant characteristics are shown in Table 1. It provides statistics on WAIS-III IQ and group indices and participants’ JART scores. Correlations of WAIS-III IQ and group indices and clinical variables of JART scores are presented in Table 2 . Notably, female gender showed a significant and positive relationship with processing speed, while education level showed a significant and positive relationship. Correlations with all WAIS-III IQ and group indices and JART scores (adjusted p < 0.05). The correlation matrix between WAIS-III IQ and group indices and JART scores is shown in Supplementary Table 1. As expected, all pairs showed significant and positive correlations (adjusted p < 0.05). In addition, initial WAIS-III subtest scores are shown in Table 2 .

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

What’s The Average Iq?

Table 2. Correlations between WAIS-III IQ and Group Index and JART

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